An Assessment of Air Pollution and its Mortality in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
This study estimates mortality attributable to air pollution in Mongolia with two models developed for this study; land use regression (LUR) modeling and mobile monitoring. LUR is a common exposure assessment tool that predicts concentrations of pollutants at unmeasured locations. The model uses monitoring site data of SO2 and NO2 in addition to geographic data available from geographical information systems (GIS) databases. The mobile monitoring consisted of 15-s measurements of ambient air with a nephelometer attached to a GPS monitor and the recorded scattering coefficient is converted to PM2.5 concentrations.
The results of the LUR model indicate that there is significant spatial autocorrelation in the measured concentrations of SO2 and NO2 (with Moran’s I, p<0.01 for both, at 0.50 and 0.42, respectively. The two models indicate higher NO2 concentrations around the city center and near major roads and higher SO2 concentrations in the ger areas. The spatial pattern predicted by the LUR model is similar to the one observed by the mobile monitor. Attributable fractions of cardiopulmonary deaths and lung cancer deaths annually are calculated using WHO approach for environmental burden of disease. The results show 9.7-27% of the total mortality during the same time frame as the monitoring days were attributable to air pollution. Reducing home heating emissions from the ger area is highlighted as the primary focus of air pollution remediation.
More Ways to work with us
Ask a question
Can’t find what you’re looking for? Let us know and we will work on finding the answer.
Share what you know
We are committed to sharing reliable and up-to-date information. If you would like to suggest a helpful resource.