Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Ambient Air of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Characteristics of Particule Matter in the Ambient AirTemporal distributions of PM2.5 and PM10 are critical in understanding the sources and health effects of pollution in Ulaanbaatar. In this study, daily concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were recorded every 30 minutes by Dusttrak II, a handheld photometer, at four different sites throughout the city from January 2014 through April 2015 and combined with data from October 2009 through January 2015 from the Administration of Air Quality in Ulaanbaatar. Results indicate that morning and evening hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are much higher than the afternoon time and morning is generally the most polluted time.
Yearly seasonal analysis shows clear enhancement of PM10 from Dec – Jan while fall and spring are nearly equal. In comparison, PM2.5 exhibits gradual increase and decrease with a peak in Jan. Precipitation in the summertime is thought to remove particulate matter from the air as the lowest recorded mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 correspond to the highest precipitation from June – August. PM10 and PM2.5 averages are the highest in winter followed by spring; the seasonal lowest values are equal while the range of values in winter are higher. Summer and fall are nearly equal in average concentrations and are significantly lower than winter and spring. However, it is important to point out that both summer and fall average concentrations are higher than the respective air quality standard meaning air quality in the summer and fall should also be taken into account. This paper highlights the idea that while winter and spring air pollution should be tackled first, the summer and fall sources should follow immediately after.
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